Definition: "An ergogenic aid is any substance or phenomenon that enhances performance "
Meta-study determines the protective effect of lycopene against prostate cancer
For years, news media bombarded readers with reports of studies in which lycopene, a compound in tomatoes, protects men against prostate cancer. In 2005, Chinese researchers published a meta-study in which they pieced together the results of those studies and re-analyzed them.
There is a trend, but not a statistically significant relationship. The p is 0.078.
When the researchers removed a study with anomalous outcomes from their analysis, the trend was statistically significant, as you can see in the figure above. According to this second analysis, a diet with a relatively high amount of lycopene reduces the risk of prostate cancer by 6 percent.
Below you can see the estimated association between the daily intake of lycopene and prostate cancer. To give you some perspective, a glass of tomato juice contains about 15 milligrams of lycopene.
"Further high quality research data are required to substantiate these conclusions in populations with high lycopene intake and circulating concentrations."