Definition: "An ergogenic aid is any substance or phenomenon that enhances performance "
Krill oil combats PMS
A small, preliminary study has shown that a supplement containing krill oil, a handful of vitamins and soya extracts reduces premenstrual syndrome [PMS]. Michael Wakeman, a researcher at the University of Birmingham in England, writes about this in Nutrition and Dietary Supplements.
Epidemiological research has shown that women who take relatively high amounts of thiamine and riboflavin are less likely to be troubled by PMS. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May;93(5):1080-6.] A couple of studies that were published in the 1980s showed that high doses of pyridoxine reduced the severity of PMS symptoms. [Obstet Gynecol. 1987 Aug;70(2):145-9.] But the doses were about fifty times as high as the amount used in Cleanmarine.
Several studies have shown that soya extracts reduce PMS. [Br J Nutr. 2005 May;93(5):731-9.] [Maturitas. 2004 Jan 20;47(1):1-9.]
Krill oil is the main component in Cleanmarine. Krill oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, and several studies have shown that a dose of 2 g per day reduces PMS. [Complement Ther Med. 2013 Jun;21(3):141-6.]
The omega-3 fatty acids found in krill oil are present in a different form than the fatty acids in fish oil. In fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids take the form of fat, or to use the scientific term, a triglyceride. The omega-3 fatty acids in krill oil take the form of a phospholipid. The body absorbs omega-3 fatty acids in the form of a phospholipid better than those in the form of a triglyceride.
Before and after the period of supplementation the women were asked to give their symptoms a score on a scale of 0 [not bothered at all] to 5 [really bothered by]. So there was no control group, which meant that Wakeman was not able to filter out the placebo effect of his study. Hmm...
But even this proviso doesn't stop him from blowing his own trumpet in the media. "I have done extensive research on PMS and its symptoms", said Wakeman in Waterford Today. [waterford-today.ie 12 February 2014] "The results from my study show that by taking krill oil combined with specific vitamins the symptoms of PMS can be significantly reduced."
On the NutraIngredients.com site Wakeman goes a step further. [nutraingredients.com 25-Apr-2014] "Other products targeting PMS, like Evening Primrose Oil, tend to benefit individual symptoms of PMS rather than address the majority of symptoms that contribute to the syndrome, for example evening primrose specifically benefits breast pain", he says there. "This formula has been put together to try to relieve more symptoms."
"The formulation of Cleanmarine was based on a literature review looking at other ingredients that would complement krill oil in relieving the most troublesome symptoms of PMS, so the formula has a highly evidence-based rationale."
These are exactly the kind of statements you'd expect from someone who has developed and launched their own supplement. But according to the publication in Nutrition and Dietary Supplements, this is not the case. "The author reports no conflicts of interest in this work", is what it says there.
Once again: Hmm...