Definition: "An ergogenic aid is any substance or phenomenon that enhances performance "
Astaxanthin for cyclists
Supplementation with the carotenoid astaxanthin enhances athletes' endurance. A daily dose of 12 milligrams reduces the time it takes cyclists to complete a 40 kilometer time trial by 1.2 percent.
On the seventh and last day of the week, the subjects had to cycle a time trial of 40 kilometers.
On another occasion, the researchers repeated the procedure. Then the cyclists were given a placebo.
Astaxanthin also increased the riders' power slightly. And this difference was also statistically significant.
"Astaxanthin accumulates in the mitochondrial membrane following consumption where it is suggested to indirectly enhance fatty acid oxidation through protecting CPT1 from oxidative modifications during exercise", the British speculate.
"The expression of AMPK is also reported to be upregulated following astaxanthin intake."
"As a key enzyme in skeletal muscle metabolism, AMPK is implicated in the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation; the transportation of fatty acids into the mitochondria, potentially through the intercalation of CPT1 and fatty acid translocase/CD36; as well as the upregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1-alpha), that are known to promote mitochondrial biogenesis and control mitochondrial oxidative capacity."