Diet with lots of sweets and little fish, vegetables and fruit reduces insulin sensitivity in young adults
Young people aged 18-25 who eat a lot of sweets, and eat little fish and little fruit and vegetables, may already have the first signs of type 2 diabetes. Swedish researchers from the University of Orebro write this in BMC Nutrition. Bread, cheese and a diet high in fat have no effect on insulin sensitivity in the Swedish study.
Using questionnaires, the researchers determined the diet of 834 Swedish adolescents aged 18-25. In addition, the researchers measured the insulin sensitivity of the study participants. The researchers expressed this in HOMA-IR.
The higher your HOMA-IR, the higher your insulin resistance - and therefore the lower your insulin sensitivity.
An earlier analysis had already made it clear to the researchers that 15 percent of the study participants had already become somewhat insensitive to insulin. According to the Swedes, this was the case when the HOMA-IR exceeded 2.52.
Bread, fat and cheese had no effect on insulin sensitivity, the researchers discovered. Click on the figure below for a larger version.
The intake of sweets, fish and vegetables and fruit did have an influence. The study participants who ate sweets more than three times a week had a significantly higher HOMA-IR than the participants who ate sweets less often. Study participants who ate fish twice a week or more often and participants who consumed at least 500 grams of fruit and vegetables per day had a significantly lower HOMA-IR than those who did not achieve this intake.
In the figures below you can see the above relationships broken down by gender.
"The result highlights the importance of reducing a high intake or sweets and to increase the consumption of fish, fruit and vegetables, in young adults, to reduce the risk of future diabetes," the researchers summarize.
Applied Research in Quality of Life, 2019; DOI: 10.1007/s11482-019-09721-4.
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