Dipeptide alanylglutamine better than energy drinks
When doing endurance sports, several hundred milligrams of the dipeptide L-alanyl-L-glutamine - better known to athletes perhaps as Sustamine - can help you to a better performance than an energy drink containing electrolytes and carbohydrates. American sports scientists wrote about this in 2015 in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition.
The researchers got 12 well-trained endurance athletes to first run for 60 minutes at a moderately intensive intensity [70 percent of their VO2peak] on four occasions. Immediately afterwards the participants had to run for as long as they could at a high intensity [90 percent of their VO2peak].
On one occasion the participants were given nothing to drink. On another occasion they were given 250 ml Gatorade G2 every 15 minutes. Gatorade is an energy drink made by PepsiCo, which contains sugar, sodium and potassium as well as other ingredients.
On two other occasions the participants drank 250 ml water containing 150 or 500 mg of the dipeptide L-alanyl-L-glutamine every 15 minutes. Alanyl glutamine was developed by the Japanese company Kyowa Hakko. [kyowahakko-bio.co.jp] Kyowa Hakko, which markets alanyl glutamine as Sustamine, [sustamine.com] funded the study of course.
The participants were able to keep up the high-intensity session at 90 percent of their VO2peak for longer if they had had an energy drink [ED] than if they had drunk nothing at all [NHY]. But if they used L-alanyl-L-glutamine - in the low [LD] or high dose [HD] - in a water solution, they performed even better.
"The physiological responses during hydration and no hydration exercise protocols were typical," the researchers wrote. "Plasma glucose concentrations increased at the outset of exercise and then remained at a constant level during the 1-hour run. During the energy drink trial, plasma glucose concentrations at 60 minutes significantly decreased compared to the 30- and 45-minute measures. In comparison, glucose concentrations in the trials in which the alanine-glutamine peptide was consumed (low dose and high dose) did not decrease at 60 minutes."
"It is possible that this may have been indicative of the gluconeogenic effect of alanine. In a rat model, Sumida and Donovan reported a 27% increase in gluconeogenesis from alanine following endurance training." [J Appl Physiol (1985). 1995 Dec;79(6):1883-8.]
"The participants in the present study were endurance trained and therefore may have benefitted from this adaptation, especially with the delivery of exogenous alanine during the low dose and high dose trials."
"Hoffman et al. reported similar results and suggested that the lack of any change in plasma glucose during the trials in which the peptide was consumed may have been related to the gluconeogenic effect of alanine and might have contributed to the delay in fatigue by sparing muscle glycogen."
"The results from this study indicated that ingestion of the alanine-glutamine dipeptide at either the low dose (300 mg/500 ml) or high dose (1 g/500 ml) during a moderate-intensity run resulted in a significant performance improvement during a subsequent run to exhaustion at 90% of VO2peak," the researchers concluded. "The results of the study were unable to elucidate the precise mechanism that supported this ergogenic effect, but it may be related to [...] the possible gluconeogenic effect of alanine."
J Am Coll Nutr. 2015;34(6):488-96.
L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine helps dehydrated athletes to better times 14.08.2010